Memories of the Holy Land


The Tower of David, Jerusalem. Photograph by Michele Campopiano, April 2013.

A post from Imagining Jerusalem network member Michele Campopiano (University of York), on some of the upcoming activities of his project with the Universiteit van Amsterdam, ‘Cultural Memory and Identity in the Late Middle Ages: the Franciscans of Mount Zion in Jerusalem and the Representation of the Holy Land (1333-1516)’.

Call for Papers: An interdisciplinary conference: ‘Memory and Identity in the Middle Ages: The Construction of a Cultural Memory of the Holy Land (4th-16th centuries)’ (Amsterdam, 26 & 27 May 2016)

Session at the International Medieval Congress: ‘Memory, Identity, and Renewal in the Late Middle Ages: The Franciscans of Mount Zion in Jerusalem and the Representation of the Holy Land, 14th-16th Centuries’ (Leeds, 6 July 2015)

The Holy Land has played an important role in the definition of the identities of the so-called Abrahamic religions. Constitutive narratives about the past of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam were largely bound to this shared and contested space. As put forward both by Maurice Halbwachs and Jan Assmann, memory adheres to what is ‘solid’: it is stored away in outward symbols. The Holy Land is a focal point around which the shared memories of these different groups formed, and has been crucial for defining their identities. Our project: ‘Cultural Memory and Identity in the Late Middle Ages: the Franciscans of Mount Zion in Jerusalem and the Representation of the Holy Land (1333-1516)’ is trying to analyze the role of the Franciscans in the construction of a cultural memory of the Holy Land. In the Late Middle Ages, when pilgrimage to the Holy Land experienced an extraordinary blossom, the Franciscans welcomed, helped and guided pilgrims in the Levant. We also aim to place our research in a broader cultural and religious context. We have therefore organised two different meetings in order to stimulate further exchange of ideas among different scholars of the Holy Land. In chronological order, the first will be our session at the International Medieval Congress in Leeds: ‘Memory, Identity, and Renewal in the Late Middle Ages: The Franciscans of Mount Zion in Jerusalem and the Representation of the Holy Land, 14th-16th Centuries’ (Monday 6 July 2015).

We are however also organizing an interdisciplinary conference in Amsterdam (26 & 27 May 2016). With this conference, we are hoping to work with an even broader range of specialists in different disciplines and periods about the connection between the Holy Land as site of memory and the formation of religious and political identities from Constantine to the Ottomans. The contribution of specialists in Jewish and Islamic studies, as well as that of students of Eastern Christian Churches, is particularly welcome. The period between the age of Constantine and the late Renaissance was formative for constructing this memory. It saw the valorisation of Christian holy places under Constantine, the birth of Islam, the construction of an important Jewish scholarly community in the Holy Land, the Crusades, the massive growth of late medieval pilgrimage involving Jewish, Christian and Islamic groups, as well as other crucial events. The conference aims to bring together scholars who study the memories of the holy places within these religious galaxies from various disciplinary perspectives, in order to achieve a constructive exchange of ideas. Scholars of all so-called Abrahamic religions are invited to submit proposals, including scholars of Western and Eastern Christianity, Judaism and Islam. The call is open for historians, art historians, literary scholars, theologians, philosophers working on topics ranging from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance.

This conference is organised by me and the other members of the team of the research project ‘Cultural Memory and Identity in the Late Middle Ages: the Franciscans of Mount Zion in Jerusalem and the Representation of the Holy Land (1333-1516)’: Valentina Covaci, Guy Geltner and Marianne Ritsema van Eck. The project is funded by the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO).

We are looking for papers about 30 minutes long, and will be followed by 15 minutes of discussion. Participants are asked to send an abstract of 300 words to before 1 December 2015, together with information concerning their academic affiliation. Travel costs and two nights of accommodation will be financed by the project.

For further information, please download the call for papers here.

If you have other question about our session at the International Medieval Congress in Leeds or our Conference in Amsterdam, feel also free to contact me (michele.campopiano[at]york[dot]ac[dot]uk). All comments on this website are welcome: we are looking forward to engaging the broader public in our multidisciplinary research!

Michele Campopiano

University of York

Universiteit van Amsterdam

New Publication: Visual Constructs of Jerusalem, ed. by Kühnel, Noga-Banai and Vorholt

visualVisual Constructs of Jerusalem is a new volume of essays, edited by Bianca Kühnel, Galit Noga-Banai, and one of our network members at York, Hanna Vorholt.

Hanna has sent us some further details about the collection:

‘This volume brings together 44 articles by scholars from 15 different countries and is an outcome of the research project SPECTRUM Visual Translations of Jerusalem.

The special position of Jerusalem among the cities of the world stems from a long history shared by the three Abrahamic religions, and the belief that the city reflected a heavenly counterpart. Because of this unique combination, Jerusalem is generally seen as extending along a vertical axis stretching between past, present, and future. However, through its many ‘earthly’ representations, Jerusalem has an equally important horizontal dimension: it is represented elsewhere in all media, from two-dimensional maps to monumental renderings of the architecture and topography of the city’s loca sancta.

In documenting the increasing emphasis on studying the earthly proliferations of the city, the current book witnesses a shift in theoretical and methodological insights since the publication of The Real and Ideal Jerusalem in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Art in 1998. Its main focus is on European translations of Jerusalem in images, objects, places, and spaces that evoke the city through some physical similarity or by denomination and cult – all visual and material aids to commemoration and worship from afar. The book discusses both well-known and long-neglected examples, the forms of cult they generate and the virtual pilgrimages they serve, and calls attention to their written and visual equivalents and companions. In so doing, it opens a whole new vista onto the summa of representations of Jerusalem.’

See the publisher’s website for the full list of essay titles.

‘A Clockwork Jerusalem’: ‘New Jerusalems’ in Britain, from Blake to Brutalism

A Clockwork Jerusalem. Photo via Architectural Association.

Followers of Jerusalem-related news and trivia may remember that the British Pavilion at the 2014 Venice Biennale was called ‘A Clockwork Jerusalem’.

‘A Clockwork Jerusalem’ is now on display a little closer to home, for those of us in the UK. It will be at the Architectural Association Gallery in London until 6th June.

If London isn’t convenient, there is a video of the exhibition in Venice last year on Youtube. You can also view a lecture about the pavilion by one of its creators, Sam Jacobs, on the Architectural Association website.

The pavilion’s name refers to two well-known, and sharply contrasting, visions of Britain’s future: Stanley Kubrick’s dystopian classic A Clockwork Orange (1971), and William Blake’s poem, ‘Jerusalem’ (c. 1808).

Jerusalem has been invoked in depictions of imagined British and English futures before and since Blake wrote his famous work, so it is not immediately obvious that this is the version of ‘Britain/England as Jerusalem’ invoked in the title.

Our network member Lucy Underwood has discussed here the ambivalent meanings of the Jerusalem metaphor for English Catholics during the Reformation, while in a series of wide-ranging recent posts Laura Sangha examined the ways in which the idea of the ‘New Jerusalem’ has been repurposed by advocates of political change, from Reformation Protestants to the twentieth century.

Blake’s Preface to ‘Milton: a Poem’, where his poem ‘Jerusalem [And did those feet in ancient time] originally appeared. Wikimedia Commons.

Blake’s ‘Jerusalem’, however, remains the touchstone for those invoking the city in imagining the future of England and Britain, and the Pavilion’s creators, Jacobs (FAT Architecture) and Wouter Vanstiphout (Crimson Architectural Historians), have specified it as their reference point. They include an image of Blake’s eye in the exhibition, looking down inscrutably on its central installation.

One of the ironies of the reception of Blake’s ‘Jerusalem’ in England and Britain, which also makes it a productive starting point for an art exhibition, is that the poem’s politically confrontational message has often been lost in its transformation into a nationalist hymn and potential national anthem. As Sangha notes, this is further disguised by the rousing music to which the poem was set in 1916 by the composer Hubert Parry. The poem, Sangha points out, was intended by Blake as a ‘call to arms – not a celebration of what England is, but a vision of what it might be.’

There is perhaps no better evidence of this widespread tendency to read Blake’s ‘Jerusalem’ as a glorification of the status quo than UK Prime Minister David Cameron’s backing of the hymn, in July 2012, as the national anthem for England’s sports teams.

This transparently populist remark, made in a speech to young Tory activists and presumably timed to coincide with the national fervour surrounding the London Olympics, which took place just weeks later, indicated Cameron’s interest in sport, underscoring his adherence to norms of masculinity, and countering critics who accuse the Eton and Oxford-educated politician of elitist detachment from ordinary life. At the same time, in its acknowledgement of a distinct ‘English’ identity outside of the Union, Cameron’s call was an appeal to the Conservative Party’s right, who have been typically sceptical of his ‘modernising’ impulses.

Crucially, by limiting his backing of Jerusalem as an anthem to sporting events only, Cameron carefully sidestepped the possibility of his call being interpreted as a criticism of Britain’s existing national anthem ‘God Save the Queen’, and, implicitly, of the Royal Family itself. This move is absolutely off-limits for English politicians, if not Welsh and Scottish ones, while the UK press and public continue to display a fanatical obsession with the Royals.

Prime Minister David Cameron, with daughter Florence, television presenter Jeremy Clarkson, Blur bassist-turned-cheese farmer Alex James, and unknown woman, pictured at James’ ‘Harvest’ Festival in 2011. Photo: The Standard.

Cameron’s enthusiasm for ‘Jerusalem’ is not surprising, given that echoes of the reading of Blake’s poem as a celebration of ‘traditional English (or British) values’ are clearly discernible in the wider nostalgic trends that have developed as a cultural counterpart to the mainstream rise of the Conservative movement in the UK over recent years. This is the topic for another blog post, but a number of thoughtful pieces have appeared online over the past few years on the links between the rehabilitation of the pastoral, ‘folk culture’, and the UK’s shift to the right.

‘A Clockwork Jerusalem’ seems to participate in another form of nostalgia, this time the currently trendy valorisation of the utopian projects of British postwar architects and town planners. The more interesting examples of this reevaluation can be found in Owen Hatherley’s writing, though the genre has spawned many lesser variants, and, of course, legions of Tumblrs (I am partial to the documentation of Sheffield, where I live, on she feld). Hatherley neatly summarises the appeal of these schemes today as a form of ‘nostalgia for the future’, a quote which also resonates with some of the uses to which imagined Jerusalems have been put (Jerusalem-born Palestinian artist Larissa Sansour’s adaptation of sci-fi tropes might be seen in the same vein).

Park Hill children at the official opening, June 16 1961. Image by Peter Tuffrey, via she feld.

The failure of a large proportion of the British postwar housing schemes is a familiar narrative. Planners and architects sought to improve working class lives by constructing vast modernist housing estates featuring light and airy rooms and indoor plumbing, which seemed to promise a dramatic improvement on the old and neglected slums then inhabited by the urban poor. Brutalist structures such as the Hulme Crescents in Manchester, Thamesmead in London (where A Clockwork Orange was filmed), and the Scottish New Town of Cumbernauld were built, and celebrated with wild optimism as a ‘New Jerusalem’. Large scale models of these buildings feature in the exhibition.

The use of Jerusalem rhetoric to describe housing plans reflected a wider hopeful framing of the welfare state at this time, seen for instance in Clement Attlee’s call, in his Labour Leader’s Speech of 1950, for members to ‘go forward and fight in the spirit of William Blake.’ Ken Loach’s documentary Spirit of ’45 (2013) drew on nostalgia for Labour’s ‘New Jerusalem’ period in an attempt to revive the party’s ailing fortunes, while now former Labour leader Ed Miliband invoked the same golden era in speeches last year. As the General Election result this month decisively showed, these didn’t work. Something about this inflection of the ‘New Jerusalem’ is clearly no longer compelling for the British public.

The promised ameliorations of the postwar housing projects ultimately failed to materialise. By the 1980s, with high rates of crime, poverty, and drug use, estates had become a stigmatised emblem of social decay (see Lynsey Hanley’s Estates (2007) for a sympathetic history of a story usually narrated with a large dose of classism). Architectural flaws had become apparent in structures that were often built quickly with poor materials (the collapse of Ronan Point in 1968 is a notorious example), while planners’ love for concrete was never quite shared by a more cautious British public. The recent rehabilitation of Brutalist architecture remains an elite phenomenon, and buildings of this period regularly top lists of ‘Britain’s ugliest buildings’. Our own newly spruced-up Central Hall at the University of York, affectionately known as the ‘spaceship’, still divides opinion.

Many estates were subsequently demolished, like the Crescents. Those which survived, such as Park Hill in Sheffield, were often subjected to the perhaps more ignominious end of ‘regeneration’. In Park Hill, council tenants have been socially cleansed, and their homes turned over to young professionals willing to pay a high price for their own stylish piece of history (maybe this is the ‘New Jerusalem’ Cameron has in mind when he promotes the sale of publicly-owned housing).

In ‘A Clockwork Jerusalem’, the story of the estates becomes part of a longer narrative of British modernism, with Blake as the anchor. This takes in, as the blurb notes, ‘traditions of the romantic, sublime and pastoral, as well as interests in technology and science fiction’.

These influences are brought together in the pavilion’s central installation, a seven-metre-wide earth mound, with bright pink stairs on two sides that allow visitors to climb on top. The mound is surrounded by a 360-degree printed panorama. This, as you may notice, features an image of Blake’s eye framed within a stylised cog, which lines up above the mound’s flat summit, in place of a sun.

The mound. Image by James Taylor-Foster.

Jacobs describes the mound as a reference to what he sees as a recurring feature of British architecture:

The mound that we’ve constructed here is a mound which is every mound: the mound of neolithic Britain, the giant earthworks of Silbury Hill, part of the landscape of Stonehenge and Avebury and so on, but it’s also the mound of Arnold Circus in the Boundary Estate (London) – one of the world’s first social housing projects where the ruins of one of the most notorious slums were piled up to create the park. This was the centre for a new idea for how you might be able to house people in London, which is also linked to the famous mound at the centre of Robin Hood Gardens, the project by Alison and Peter Smithson, which is scheduled for demolition sometime in the very near future. In fact, some of the earth in the mound we’ve constructed here, comes from Robin Hood Gardens.

The symmetry of the mound, its relation to the panorama’s images, and its housing at the centre of an equally symmetrical Neoclassical building, reminded me of the masonic temples and esoteric religious imagery that feature in Alan Moore’s From Hell. Moore, of course, is a Blake acolyte himself, and also deals in his work with the intertwining of the modern, mystical and political (Matt Green, who taught me at Nottingham, has examined these themes in his comparative work on the two writers).

Rather appropriately, Moore has been working on an English Jerusalem epic of his own, set in his native Northampton (a city with other unexpected Jerusalem connections, as Laura Slater highlights elsewhere on this blog). Moore’s novel Jerusalem, clocking in at over a million words in draft form and currently undergoing (presumably extensive) editing, is due for publication in spring 2016.

The ‘Clockwork Jerusalem’ pavilion presents a reminder of the many ways in which Jerusalem, and particularly the mission of recreating a New Jerusalem, has figured in narratives of British and English identity. Representations of Jerusalem are rewritten and repurposed to both serve and contest prevailing political arrangements, and are used by political and religious leaders, as well as architects, artists and visionaries. Versions of Jerusalem give us intellectual and ideological concepts to think with, but they also shape our physical environments, whether those are sixties tower blocks or Norman churches.

We might even say, to use an irresistible word, that the frequency with which iterations of Jerusalem reappear in our cultural life is about as regular as clockwork.

Hannah Boast

Larissa Sansour: Palestine, Sci-Fi and Superheroes

An image from Larissa Sansour's Nation Estate project (2012)

An image from Larissa Sansour’s Nation Estate project (2012)

Jerusalem-born Larissa Sansour is one of the most well-known Palestinian artists working today, and her films and images have been exhibited around the world.

In this interview with the Institute for Palestine Studies blog, Sansour discusses food, archaeology and myth, and how science fiction can help us to think through Palestinian politics.

One of the works she discusses is her project Nation Estate (2012), an image from which is pictured here. Sansour envisions a dystopian architectural solution to the problem of creating a Palestinian state in an ever-shrinking Palestinian space:

With Israeli settlement activity confiscating more and more Palestinian land, it struck me that for a Palestinian state ever to materialize, one would have to think vertically. This thought was the starting point for the Nation Estate project. In Nation Estate, Palestinians finally have their state in the shape of a single skyscraper housing the entire population. Each city has its own floor: Jerusalem on the third floor, Ramallah on the fourth, Bethlehem on the fifth, and so on. Aiming for a sense of belonging, the lobby areas of each floor reenacts central squares and landmarks, the elevator doors on the Jerusalem floor opening up onto a full-scale version of the Dome of the Rock.

Sansour’s high-rise solution recalls Israeli architect Eyal Weizman’s ‘politics of verticality’ (Hollow Land, 2007), of which he describes Jerusalem as an ‘intense case study’.

While Sansour imagines Jerusalem as one floor in a tower block, Weizman discusses a proposal made by Bill Clinton at Camp David for vertically-divided ownership of the Dome of the Rock, where the area would be partitioned imaginatively into Palestinian, Israeli, and United Nations-run segments.

Sansour’s work confronts her audiences with the question of whether her science fictional scenarios are necessarily more absurd than the Palestinian reality.

Teaching Jerusalem: an interview with Dr Loren Lerner, Concordia University

Dr Loren Lerner, beside a work created for the course by student Anna Campbell, titled ‘Design for an Ideal Starlight’.

Imagining Jerusalem network member Dr Loren Lerner is professor of Art History at Concordia University, Montreal, where she teaches a course called ‘The City of Jerusalem: Ideas and Images’. Loren kindly agreed to be interviewed about the course for this blog, and our conversation is below.

Hannah: What are your aims for the course? Can you give us an idea of its scope, structure, and the primary materials that you use?

Loren: The syllabus outlines the topics covered, learning activities, expected outcomes and the bibliography of readings. I have culled the readings from many disciplines. This is because I found few books and journal articles devoted to the art history of Jerusalem. As well, I want the students to be acquainted with writings on the art and architecture of Jerusalem from the fields of archaeology, history, religion, anthropology and sociology and by scholars from different backgrounds and environments. Below, is the course description.

ARTH 369/2A The City of Jerusalem: Ideas and Images

Over the centuries, Jerusalem has been called Shalem, Yerushalayim, City of Melchizedek, City of the Great King or City of David, Aelia Capitolina, Prototype of the Heavenly Jerusalem, Bayt al-Maqdis or al-Quds, and City of Peace. This course considers these different attachments to Jerusalem through visual perceptions and artistic representations at the religious, social and political levels. With a focus on the art and architecture of ancient times, we will examine Jerusalem’s multifaceted religious narratives, allegiances, and ideas, including the “heavenly” Jerusalem that has existed in the minds of believers and artists since the Hebrew Bible. Beginning with the Bronze Age and the First Temple and Second Temple periods, this attention to Jerusalem’s ancient era will be a persistent theme in an extensive study of the city’s history that covers the Roman period, Byzantine Jerusalem, the Arab, Crusader and Mamluk periods, the years under Ottoman rule (1517-1917), the British Mandate (1917-1948), Jerusalem’s division and reunification (1948-1967), and Israel today.

Hannah: Were there preconceptions about Jerusalem that you were trying to tackle when devising the course?

Loren: I have not had a problem in this regard because the students, so far, have few preconceived notions about Jerusalem or opinions based on biases or prejudices. The multicultural character of the city of Montreal and Concordia University’s diverse student population are factors that have contributed to the open-minded reception of this course.

These are some of reasons why I developed this course on Jerusalem:

  • to examine forms of artistic expression including architecture, sculpture, painting and other media from across a variety of cultural identities so as to encourage respect for the art of these different communities
  • to demonstrate how an expanse of history depends mainly on how one reads the evidence
  • to encourage an understanding of human experiences from the viewpoint of others who interpret the world in significantly dissimilar ways
  • to integrate a large historical perspective that reveals the changes in the art of particular eras, as well as the continuities of religious, ethical and social values
  • to explore artistic productions and cultural practices that construct identity, influence public discourse and act as catalysts for social and political changes

Hannah: Has there been anything in student responses that you didn’t expect, or anything that they found particularly surprising when learning about Jerusalem?

Loren: I was pleasantly surprised by the students’ enthusiasm for Jerusalem. Since a good many of the students in this class are artists in Concordia’s studio arts programs, they could, for their major assignment, create a work of art, reflecting a visual response to this ancient city as a site of major world religions. The work of art had to be accompanied by an exploratory text. Below are six works and short descriptions excerpted from the student essays. (For the complete texts see the first issue of the Jerusalem Art History Journal: An Undergraduate eJournal/Histoire de l’art à Jérusalem : cyberrevue étudiante de premier cycle).

(Click the images to enlarge)

Three Religions, Three Sacred Sights
Eduardo Mazzonna


In this print, Three Religions, Three Sacred Sights, Eduardo decided to include the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall. He reveals how light, in association with colour, shape, and decorative elements plays a significant symbolic role in these structures.

martelJerusalem Belongs to No One and Everyone
Patrick Martel

Patrick’s painting, Who’d win in a wrestling match…. (Lemmy or God), is titled after an iconic scene from the cult movie Airheads in which Lemmy Killmeister of heavy metaldom is often referred to by his nickname “God.” Patrick asks if all three religions worship the same god, and all three have their own version of the end of days, and all three believe this event will lead to the annihilation of the non-believers, would this event not ultimately result in the annihilation of everyone? How, Patrick asks, can Judaism, Christianity, and Islam pretend to have primacy over each other?

cossarImmaculate Mary: A Reflection on the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Tomb of the Virgin in the Kidron Valley, Jerusalem
Elsbeth Cossar

Elsbeth’s artwork titled Immaculate Mary is based on an in-depth exploration of the theological debates concerning the Virgin Mary’s Assumption. With symbols taken from the Book of Revelation she presents the moment of the Assumption of Mary who is brought into a golden, heavenly realm through the parting clouds surrounded by a crown of twelve stars with the crescent moon at her feet. In this work the door of the tomb is wide-open, leading down into a dark area and there are two iconic rooftops (the Dome of the Rock and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre). This is to emphasize that the tomb depicted is the one in Jerusalem, as there is controversy over the true location of the tomb, either Jerusalem or Ephesus.

Histoire d’Esme: An Imagined Story of a Ten-year Old Pilgrim to Jerusalem in the Twelfth Century
Faith Wiley

wiley1 wiley2 wiley3

When Faith first saw the manuscript illuminations of the Crusades the images reminded her of contemporary graphic novels and children’s books. Her awareness that the depictions commonly focused on the heroic stories of men led her to create a graphic novel in a style reminiscent of crusader illuminations. This story features a girl of ten, who would have lived in the twelfth century and travelled to Jerusalem as a pilgrim.

A Study of Islamic Geometric Tile Design
Stephanie Raudsepp



Stephanie sought to construct tile designs to showcase the steps involved in the creation of Islamic tiles designs. The series includes fourteen tiles, in a progression that grows increasingly more complex with every additional circle and line, culminating in one tile inspired by the Dome of the Rock, which houses the foundation stone. The use of geometry comes from the Islamic belief that measurement and non-figurative decorative compositions spiritually transcend a pictorial presentation of the physical world.

Jerusalem Syndrome: A Photo Essay
Sara Graorac

graorac graorac2

The Jerusalem Syndrome is a group of mental phenomena involving the presence of either religiously themed obsessive ideas, delusions or other psychosis-like experiences that are triggered by a visit to the city of Jerusalem. In these photos Sara encounters a powerful surge to turn into Mary Magdalene, completely overwhelmed by the religious history and energy in the Holy City.

Hannah: How do you deal with the inevitable questions of balance that come up when dealing with a city that has and continues, very visibly, to be the object of such contention?

Loren: I structured the course to offer different points of view and histories, in this way counteracting perceptions of partiality on my part. This is hopefully apparent from the titles of the lectures:

  • Introduction to the City of Jerusalem: History and Approaches
  • Jewish Yerushalayim
  • Christian Hagiapolis Ierousalem/Hierosolyma
  • Muslim Al Quds
  • Jerusalem and the Crusader Period (1095-1291)
  • Islamization of Space and Society in Mamluk Jerusalem (1260-1517)
  • Ottoman Jerusalem and Modernization (1516-1917)
  • Pilgrimages to Jerusalem, the Way of the Souls; New Jerusalem, Heavenly Jerusalem
  • Jerusalem under the British Mandate (1916-1948)
  • Israeli-Jewish artists and Zion
  • Palestinian Artists, Nationalism and Self-Determination
  • Jerusalem To-day: Architecture, Urban Space and Contested Identities

I emphasize that the discussion of the readings, minor and major assignments and the final exam are devoted to the art history of Jerusalem. This means developing the ability to interpret images and texts, use historical sources, and engage in scholarly debates. Here are some examples of the exam questions I pose to encourage visual analysis and brief excerpts from the student responses.

Explore the figure of the exile and refugee in contemporary Israeli and Palestinian art.

This response will consider a series of Israeli and Palestinian artists specifically concerned with the notion of military action and the state of exile undergone by both Israelis and Palestinians as a consequence…Contemporary Israeli and Palestinian artists concerned with the notion of exile have challenged fears and stereotypes by avoiding accusatory representations of each other. Instead, these artists express the need for social change by 1) representing their own experiences and allowing them to be abstracted, 2) introducing notions of the absurd and 3) bridging the two cultures over common ground.

Discuss photographic depictions of Jerusalem during the nineteenth and early twentieth period in comparison with recent works by artist-photographers.

By examining photographs from the nineteenth century European model and those from contemporary Israeli or Palestinian sources, it becomes evident that the two had different artistic intentions. Both, however, attempt to speak to and delineate space, whether because of a romanticized biblical interest or due to long standing socio-politic tensions.

Consider Jewish representations of Jerusalem in relation to religious ideas and historical events.

The art works examined demonstrate the conscious shift from the formation of identity surrounding ideological, natural, and linguistic unification of Eretz-Israel to creative representations of collective memory and consciousness of traumatic events and the shared history that are relived in the present among Jewish Israelis. Contemporary Jewish-Israeli art brings to the fore historical events and movements while offering critical insight into their current implications and associations.

Explore the interrelationship between the historical-earthly Jerusalem, and the symbolic-heavenly one.

The distinction between a historical, earthly Jerusalem, and a symbolic, heavenly Jerusalem, is not an easy one to make, especially in the case of a Christian perspective….The key to understanding Jerusalem from a Christian viewpoint is the abandonment of the modern notion of a universal history…. Jerusalem as a city was, therefore, a real, physical, historical place, but one where this very tangible existence was taken as a symbol of its eternal significance.

Examine the religious and narrative associations with Jerusalem in works of art, maps, buildings, and, or spaces, not physically located in the city of Jerusalem.

The act of creation has allowed artists to conceive of their own notions of Jerusalem, fulfilling sacred and secular ideologies and functioning as a representational stand-in for particular beliefs. Christian imagery in particular boasts an array of varied approaches to rendering the city which depart from the actual place. As monastic practices urge a contemplative meditation gleaned from an interior visualization of space, the experience of Jerusalem through second-hand accounts or via first-hand remembrance by faithful Christians often yielded personal narratives.

Museum on the Seam “is a unique museum in Israel, displaying contemporary art that deals with different aspects of the socio-political reality.” Present an exhibition concept for this museum on a particular theme and discuss the artists and works you will include in this exhibition.

Inspired by a previous exhibition titled Equal Less Equal, I have chosen the topic of women in the socio-political sphere to be viewed in relation to notions of inequality, injustice, subjection, and human rights. The title of the exhibition will be Women; this is inspired by the name of the art project series Women are Heroes, by Parisian artist JR…. As the exhibition Women is a tribute to females and their various roles and presences in society there will be art works from the artists JR, Paul Guiragossian, Ghassan Kanafani, and Nabil Anani. All of these artists are known for their representations of women in the context of nationalism, or nurture, as well as leadership, rebellion, or beauty.

Visitors to Jerusalem are tired of the tours being offered by the guides because the itinerary is either a visit to Christian, Jewish or Muslim sites, but seldom all three religions combined. Devise a new tour of Jerusalem on a particular theme and argue why you have selected these buildings and places.

Having been employed as a tour guide for this company for several years, it has come to my attention that visitors are growing increasingly disinterested in our tours as they feel they are too specific to a single religion and are ‘missing the big picture’ of Jerusalem. The theme “walls” was chosen because it is versatile and applicable to both the ideological and physical boundaries undergone by Jerusalem throughout its history…

On day one, visitors would meet at Gihon Spring and the tour would take them through the Siloan tunnel below King Hezekiah’s wall. Symbolically, this action represents the birth of Jerusalem; beginning with the spring that enabled life in the region and passing through the threshold of the walls built to defend the people and ideals of the city……

Having given the visitor an understanding of the religious and historical foundations of Jerusalem, the second day of the tour would begin at the Damascus Gate and continue along the wall through the Zion Gate and back to the Western Wall. These gates are part of the gated wall erected by Suleiman the Magnificent. As such they represent an important portion of Jerusalem’s architectural history during the Ottoman empire which lasted four hundred years. Moreover, the walls of Jerusalem demonstrate the cultural overlaps undergone by the city; the Damascus Gate stands above old Roman foundations of similar gates further emphasizing the scope of the city’s history. One may also mention the role of architect Charles Robert Ashbee who, during the British Mandate, suggested the development of gardens around the walls. In this way, visitors may become better acquainted with the role of the British in the development of architecture in Jerusalem….

The final day of the tour would take visitors to the current separation wall where graffiti is a common occurrence. This would place Jerusalem within the territorial Israeli-Palestinian dispute. The separation wall acts as support for many contemporary Israeli and Palestinian artist such as Bansky, Suleiman Mansour, and Yoav Weiss. These artists are important in defining the current climate of the conflict and would complete the visitor’s hopefully more global reading of Jerusalem.

Hannah: How long have you taught the course, and is there anything you’ve changed, or would change?

Loren: I’ve taught the course for two years. I continue to augment and refine the content. The Imagining Jerusalem blog is very helpful, the people, postings, events, publications, etc. Every time I am in Jerusalem I discover more possibilities for course content.

Two weeks ago I visited the Good Samaritan Museum which opened in 2009. Located at a site that served as a hostel along the road from Jericho to Jerusalem the museum focuses on Byzantine mosaic floors of Jewish and Samaritan synagogues and Christian churches, collected from excavations across the West Bank and Gaza. Upon seeing the array of geometric patterns, inscriptions, images, symbols and motifs I realized that I need to devote more attention to the material remains of sites in the vicinity of Jerusalem.

I also intend to explore more closely the buildings and spaces with Jerusalem associations in the city of Montreal. This includes the Chapel of St. John of Jerusalem in Christ Church Cathedral, Fraternités Monastiques de Jérusalem, and the Masonic Memorial Temple. Francine Bernier’s The Templars’ Legacy in Montreal: The New Jerusalem (2003) is an excellent starting point. In a well documented text Bernier explores evidence from 17th century Montreal that reveals the origins of the city as the New Jerusalem of New France.

Hannah: Thank you Loren for sharing these fascinating and thoughtful reflections with us!

Thank you to M. Lynx Qualey of the blog Arabic Literature (in English) for providing the inspiration for this blog post in her interview with Washington University in St. Louis professor Anne-Marie McManus on teaching Syrian narratives.

Hannah Boast, Network Coordinator

Conference Announcement: The Politics of Visual Translations of Jerusalem, 20-21 March, York

vtj Conference Poster-page-001A conference announcement from colleagues at York:

Registration is now open for the ERC-funded ‘The Politics of Visual Translations of Jerusalem’ conference, to be held in York from 20th-21st March 2015.

Further details can be found on the project homepage.

Registration takes place via York’s Online Store, following the History of Art tab.

The poster can be downloaded here, and the programme is available here. These, along with details of keynote lectures, can also be downloaded from the conference website.

New Issue and CFP: Jerusalem Art History Journal: An Undergraduate eJournal

journalJerusalem Art History Journal is a new undergraduate eJournal, edited by Imagining Jerusalem network member Loren Lerner. The inaugural issue can be downloaded here.

The issue features a selection of essays produced by students of Loren’s course ‘City of Jerusalem: Ideas and Images’, which she teaches in the Department of Art History at Concordia University in Montreal.

From the issue Introduction:

‘[City of Jerusalem: Ideas and Images] considers different attachments to Jerusalem through visual perceptions and artistic representations at the religious, social, and political levels. Its focus is on the multifaceted narratives, allegiances, and ideas of the city’s history covering ancient times, the Roman and Byzantine periods, the Arab, Crusader, and Mamluk periods, and the years under Ottoman, British Mandate, Jordan/Israeli, and Israeli rule. Of central importance is the visual imagery of the real and imagined Jerusalem in the art and architecture created by different communities over thousands of years.’

The essays explore the art, architecture, archaeological sites, and urban spaces of Jerusalem from a range of eras. Others discuss works of art created by the students themselves, in which they produced their own visual response to the city.

Loren hopes that the journal will become a student-run, peer-reviewed publication, open to all universities. Contributions to the next issue (in English or French) are currently invited, and should be sent to loren.lerner[at] by 1 April 2015. The Call for Papers can be downloaded here.

Call for Papers: The Politics of Visual Translations of Jerusalem, History of Art, University of York, March 2015

The History of Art Department at the University of York is hosting a cross-period, interdisciplinary conference in March 2015 on ‘The Politics of Visual Translations of Jerusalem’. The Call for Papers is below, and you can download it as a PDF here.

Access to and sovereignty over the holy places of Jerusalem is a frequent source of political tension amongst the three Abrahamic faiths, while further discord has developed over the religious and secular identities of the city. There is no question that contemporary visualisations of Jerusalem are concerned with the political status and symbolism of Jerusalem as a divided city, disputed state capital and key issue for the peaceful resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. However, despite acknowledgment of the deep historical roots of contemporary political conflicts in the Middle East, the political significance of earlier visual translations of Jerusalem has often escaped scholarly attention. This conference aims to address this important issue. It seeks to look across different historical periods, geographical boundaries and religious traditions to bring out the range of political ideas and agendas which underpin architectural translations, visual representations and physical relics of Jerusalem in Europe and beyond. Considering the ways in which Jerusalem and its holy places were imagined, visually represented, and replicated across the medieval, early modern and modern periods, the conference will ask: What political interests or regimes have become invested in the recreation of Jerusalem? How have local or wider political events impacted on Jerusalem translations and their histories, for example with regard to iconoclasm and politically motivated acts of vandalism and destruction? As such, the conference will examine political dimensions in the construction, use, appropriation, and reception history of visual translations of Jerusalem, seeking to establish a productive scholarly dialogue between place, period and political agenda.

Keynote lectures will be given by Achim Timmermann (University of Michigan) and Antony Eastmond (Courtauld Institute).

Papers are invited from researchers in the fields of history of art and architecture, politics, history, literature, religion, archaeology, and other relevant disciplines. Areas of particular interest include:

Jerusalem recreations and the definition of nations, states, empires, cities and peoples

Political regimes: the recreation of Jerusalem at centres of power and within political territories; the importance of Jerusalem for the self or public image of rulers

Current events: the role of visual translations of Jerusalem in political debates, polemics, propaganda, and political movements; Jerusalem sites as places of political resistance or rebellion

The politics of performance, exhibition and consumption

The use or reuse of Jerusalem sites as memorials

The politics of loss: destruction or neglect of Jerusalem translations

Please send an abstract of up to 300 words to Laura Slater ( Deadline for submission of proposals is 10 October 2014. Limited funding is available to help cover external speakers’ travel and accommodation expenses. Please let us know in your email if you require funding. The conference is organized in the context of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/20072013)/ ERC grant agreement no.249466.

For further information see: visualtranslationsjerusalem/